Did Kennedy High fake its passing rates to keep itself off a New York State bad list? We dont know, but this is precisely the sort of pressure that seems to have led the state of Virginia to invent the odd statistical procedure which turned a 27 percent passing rate into a 92 (see below). For ourselves, we strongly believe in annual testing; absent some objective measure, schools and school systems will tell wild tales about the amazing progress theyve managed. But the key word there would have to be competent. As pressure builds on high-stakes exams, so does the pressure to fake good results. Result? If those testing programs are managed poorly, they become tools of deception. See below!
Lets consider a pair of questions which arise from Winerips report. Should high school students be required to pass a test before they get a diploma? As a general matter, that strikes us as unwise, although wed want to hear the arguments before we judged some particular program. And how about this: Should schools like Kennedy be seized by the state if their passing rates are low? There are pros and cons to that sort of thing too. But if youre going to base such major decisions on high-stakes exams, you have to monitor those exams very carefully. More often, we proceed with winks and nods—and newspapers are soon writing stories about low-income schools with surprisingly wonderful test scores.
In Winerips report, we read about familiar pressures—and we seem to see some familiar reactions. Stories like this are extremely old hat. Its why we always check the facts when we read stories with headlines like this: A Study in Pride, Progress.
Epilogue: Theres something about Maury!
VISIT OUR INCOMPARABLE ARCHIVES: Be sure to read each part of our report on those strange Virginia test scores. For Part 1, see THE DAILY HOWLER, 2/6/06. You can click forward from there.
27 ISNT ENOUGH: Big papers have been in love with the story for at least thirty-five years. Its a variant of The Little Engine That Could; lets call it The Low-Income School Thats Succeeding. Newspapers love to present the tale, complete with photos of smiling children and quotes from their grateful—if misinformed—parents. Often, an energetic new principal is involved in the tale—one who transforms a failing school, helping us see how easy it is to make such miracles happen. And sure enough! In Saturdays Post, the editors told it again:
WASHINGTON POST EDITORIAL (2/4/06): By helping to fine-tune and implement [No Child Left Behind] instead of constantly running it down, Democratic politicians, child welfare advocates and teachers unions could help fix broken school systems as well. A profile of once-disastrous, now-successful Maury Elementary School in Alexandria by The Post's Jay Mathews last week showed what can be achieved if teachers and administrators use the law well. It's an odd idea, getting the Democrats to embrace a Republican project. But if they are brave enough to do it, thousands of inner-city children will be better off.Its so easy to fix broken school systems! For ourselves, we have mixed views on No Child Left Behind; we think its testing-and-reporting requirements are great, its punitive aspects much less appealing. But once again, a room full of know-nothing, upper-class scions got to tell a much-treasured tale. Maury was a disaster—but now its successful! And this could happen for thousands of kids! If only the nay-sayers—in this case, Dem pols—would let the vast progress occur.
But now we see—we see once again—that success may not come quite so easy. As it turns out, Maury Elementary doesnt seem real successful; only two grade levels were tested last spring, and in one of them, Maurys kids performed very poorly. A bit of statistical legerdemain made it look like the school was succeeding. But in fact, only 27 percent of Maury third-graders passed the Virginia reading test—and 77 percent passed this same test statewide. Sadly, 27 just isnt enough when we talk about passing rates for this test. But so what? Like many credulous colleagues before them, the editors rushed to endorse.
But then, as we discussed last fall, nothing can stop the endless spread of this foolish but long-treasured tale. Mainstream news orgs have been pimping this piffle ever since we began teaching in Baltimore, back in 1969. Last autumn, thirty-six years later, we watched as a two-hour PBS special (Making Schools Work) boasted about low-income schools whose surprising success was supposed to have enormous implications for public schools nationwide. (This is an often surprising story of educational success, said the host.) But when we actually examined the schools, we found that some—just like Maury—were functioning far below their states norms, while others seemed remarkably average. (We were told that one schools students were thriving. Their actual test scores were a disaster, a fact which the program left out.) What in the world makes big news orgs keep presenting this same phony story? Were not sure, but they ought to stop, if only because of this telling passage from Jay Mathews front-page report:
MATHEWS (2/2/06): Mary Jo Smet, who has a third-grader at Maury, credits many people for the gains. "We have a wonderful principal...and the hardest-working teachers in the city," she said. "I think the parents who are there have made a commitment to make it work. It is a confluence of energy and effort."Smet has a third-grade child at Maury. But has she seen Maurys actual third-grade passing rates? Or has she been sold a big load of goods, through the use of those gimmicked-up data? If nothing else, were sick to death of parents being toyed with this way.
But something else is ultimately wrong with the tale of The Low-Income School That Could. That takes us back to the ultimate problem with the standards movement—a problem we discussed on Monday, in Part 1 of this report (see THE DAILY HOWLER, 2/6/06).
No Child Left Behind has some outstanding features. As a matter of theory, we love the testing and reporting. But what is wrong with this ballyhooed program? Just this: No Child Left Behind demands that schools improve their test scores every year. As we noted, that demand makes absolutely no sense (except as a tool of motivation). But even if it did make sense, theres another problem with NCLB. The imperious program demands success—but offers no guidance into how to achieve it. It orders schools to improve—but it doesnt say how. As weve said again and again, this is great work—if you can get it.
No Child Left Behind demands success—and newspapers love to pretend that its easy. Soon, individual schools—entire state systems—are finding creative ways to provide it. But success isnt easy in low-income schools, and editors should stop pretending otherwise. That familiar fairy-tale feels very good—but it helps shut off more serious discussion. After all, if an energetic principal can transform a disaster, it must be fairly easy to do. Sitting pompously on their tuffets, editors have to worry no further. They can just criticize everyone else for failing to author fake gains.
Do we recall our Chekhov—our Lady with a Lapdog? We often recall the masters words as he ends his tale of Gurov and lady:
CHEKHOV (1899): And it seemed to them that in only a few more minutes a solution would be found and a new, beautiful life would begin; but both of them knew very well that the end was still a long, long way away and that the most complicated and difficult part was only just beginning.Success is still a long way away in our nations low-income schools. The most difficult part is still just beginning. But big news orgs love the alternate tale, in which success will appear in a few minutes more and a beautiful life will be beginning. Theyre too indifferent to fight the real fight; for them, 27 percent is enough. But then, such toffs are found in this Chekhov tale too. Well recommend that you go find them.
THE POSTS OBLIGATION: We do hope the Post will report on this matter. No, they cant exactly run a new page-one story, saying that Maury really didnt do well. But the weird manipulation of this schools passing rates does demand a thorough review. (Again, this seems to be a state problem, not one invented at the school or city level.) Indeed, as we continue to ponder this puzzling incident, were struck, more and more, by the scam of it all—of a 27 percent passing rate transformed to a fine 92.
Meanwhile, theres one more question which ought to be asked: Are other states adjusting their data this way? Are other states turning their water to wine? Are other states creating numbers with which they can fool trusting parents?
MORE TO COME: We still plan to review the generic state-of-Virginia school report card—a document so jaw-droppingly inept that it gave us flashbacks of our years inside a large, ineptly-run urban system. And we plan to share some material from Jonathan Kozols latest book—his musings on the never-ending myth of the energetic new principal. For one brief excerpt from that excellent chapter, see THE DAILY HOWLER, 10/14/05. Remember Joe Clark, boys and girls?